Report Sightings

County Birds


AZFO Photos

Birding Arizona


About AZFO



GARY H. ROSENBERG, P.O. Box 91856, Tucson, Arizona  85752-1856

KURT RADAMAKER, 16313 E. Crystal Point Dr., Fountain Hills, Arizona 85268

MARK M. STEVENSON, 4201 E. Monte Vista Dr., J207, Tucson, Arizona  85712

Printable PDF version with photos click here

This is the sixth published report of the Arizona Bird Committee (hereafter ABC) (see Speich and Parker 1973, Speich and Witzeman 1975, Rosenberg and Witzeman 1998,  Rosenberg and Witzeman 1999, and Rosenberg 2001). This report covers records mainly from the period between 2000 and 2004, but also includes some recently reviewed records from prior to 2000. A total of 331 reports submitted to the ABC are reported on here, of which 279 (84 %) were accepted. Eight species were added to the official state list; these were  Cackling Goose (Branta hutchinsii), Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator), Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus), Buff-breasted Sandpiper (Tryngites subruficollis), Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris), Black-capped Vireo (Vireo atricapillus) (reinstated), Eastern Towhee (Pipilo erythophthalmus), and Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow (Ammodramus nelsoni). Additionally, one new subspecies was accepted for the state, the "Mangrove" Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia bryanti).

Other highlights in this report include acceptance of Arizona's third and fourth Yellow-billed Loons (Gavia adamsii), third Sharp-tailed Sandpiper (Calidris acuminata), fourth and fifth Ruffs (Philomachus pugnax), second Western Gull (Larus occidentalis), fourth and fifth Elegant Terns (Thalasseus elegans), second and third Great Crested Flycatchers (Myiarchus crinitus), third Great Kiskadee (Pitangus sulphuratus), third Blue-headed Vireo (Vireo solitarius), second Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), second Red-throated Pipit (Anthus cervinus), fifth Slate-throated Redstart (Myioborus miniatus), second Le Conte's Sparrow (Ammodramus leconteii), and second Snow Bunting (Plectophenax nivalis). We also report on the rapid change in status of Short-tailed Hawk (Buteo brachyurus), which went from one record to nesting in the state, and the relative explosion of Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto), which is now found almost statewide in rapidly increasing numbers.

The current Arizona Bird Committee (2007) consists of Charles Babbitt, Gavin Bieber, Chris D. Benesh, Henry Detwiler, Kurt Radamaker, Gary H. Rosenberg (Secretary), Dave Stejskal, and Mark M. Stevenson. Recent committee members who also voted on records in this report include, Troy Corman, Narca Moore-Craig, Tony Godfrey, Rich Hoyer, Roy Jones, Ken Kertell, Dave Krueper, Chuck LaRue, and Will Russell. Janet Witzeman serves in a non-voting capacity as Assistant Secretary.

The ABC's review species list can be found on its web page ( Included on this web site as well are the official state list, the ABC's bylaws, a list of current committee members, a brief history of the ABC, the past five reports by the ABC (as published in Western Birds), and a selection of photographs of rarities from Arizona. A new state organization, Arizona Field Ornithologists, is in its fledgling stage, with information available at: An official electronic reporting form is available at that site at:

The ABC encourages observers to submit documentation for species on the review list, as well as new species for Arizona. All material should be sent to Gary H. Rosenberg, ABC Secretary, P.O. Box 91856, Tucson, AZ  85752-1856 (e-mail  The committee would like to emphasize the importance of submitting documentation of sightings directly to the ABC for review. The posting of reports, including those with written descriptions, on local "listservs" may not safely be assumed to have been discovered by the ABC, nor safely assumed to be interpreted as documentation of a rarity. The ABC prefers reports submitted directly to the committee, or to the regional editor of North American Birds (who forward the material on review list species to the secretary of the ABC). The ABC would like to thank the many observers from Arizona and from around North America who have submitted their documentation of sightings to the ABC.

Each record listed below includes a locality, county (abbreviation: see below), date (span normally as published in North American Birds), and initial observer if known. Additional observers who submitted written reports (as indicated by the symbol †), photographs, video recordings, and sound recordings are also listed. All records are of sight reports unless noted otherwise with a symbol for a photograph, sound recording, or specimen. It has generally been customary for the ABC to review individuals returning for multiple years, and these dates are normally included within the accounts. The new ABC policy will be to review individuals for multiple years, if the individual has left, and then returned. Individuals that persist for multiple years without leaving will not be reviewed again. In most cases, the total number of records in the state for a species includes both the number of records accepted by the ABC, and individuals published in Birds of Arizona (Phillips et al. 1964) or the Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Arizona (Monson and Phillips 1981) that occurred in Arizona prior to the conception of the ABC. The taxonomy follows the latest A.O.U. Checklist (7th edition) and all its subsequent supplements as published in The Auk. The ABC would like to emphasize that a report listed in the "reports not accepted" section does not necessarily mean that the members of the ABC "do not believe" the observer, but indicates that the documentation supplied to the committee for evaluation may not be detailed enough, or meet the rigorous standards established individually and independently by each member of the committee, in order to substantiate the sighting as a formal historical record. The ABC attempts to be fair and objective with regard to evaluation of all reports.

The ABC's abbreviations for counties in Arizona are: APA, Apache; COS, Cochise; COC, Coconino; GIL, Gila; GRA, Graham; GRE, Greenlee; LAP, La Paz; MAR, Maricopa; MOH, Mohave; NAV, Navajo; PIM, Pima; PIN, Pinal; SCR, Santa Cruz; YAV, Yavapai; YUM, Yuma. Other nonstandard abbreviations commonly used within this report include: *, specimen; B.T.A., Boyce Thompson Arboretum; L.C.R.V., Lower Colorado River Valley; N.I.R., Navajo Indian Reservation; N.M., National Monument; N.W.R., National Wildlife Refuge; ph., photograph; P.A.P., Pinal Air Park; P.R.D., Painted Rock Dam; S.P.R., San Pedro River; S.T.P., Sewage Treatment Plant; s.r., sound recording;U.A., University of Arizona; v.t., video tape.


CACKLING GOOSE Branta hutchinsii. With the recent taxonomic split of Cackling Goose Branta hutchinsii from the larger Canada Goose Branta canadensis (see Banks et al. 2004), all "small" white-cheeked geese will now be reviewed by the ABC. A single individual at Kino Springs, SCR, 27 Dec 1998 - 20 Feb 1999 (ph. MMS) officially constitutes Arizona's first accepted record. An additional report accepted is of a single individual at Fountain Hills, MAR, 21 Jan–24 Feb 2003 (ph. KR). Prior to 2005, “small” white-cheeked geese were not reviewed by the ABC, so the true status of Cackling Goose in Arizona is not well known. Monson and Phillips (1981) treated Cackling Goose as a full species, listing two specimen records of the minima subspecies from Arizona. The difficulty of separating Branta canadensis parvipes from B. h. taverneri adds additional complication. The ABC encourages observers to fully document all sightings of Cackling Goose in Arizona.

TRUMPETER SWAN Cygnus buccinator. The status of Trumpeter Swan in Arizona has been a contentious issue, with much discussion by the ABC regarding identification and origin of reported birds. A single unbanded imm. at Willow Tank near Portal, COS, 19 Dec 1994 (ph. AM) was accepted on the third round as Arizona's first record, at least partially based upon discussions with Trumpeter Swan experts Ruth Shea and Rod Drewien (Trumpeter Swan Society) regarding "hazing" of family groups in the Green River region of Wyoming. Other accepted records are of an unbanded adult found dead at Gleeson, COS, 1 Jan 1998 (SW; *U.A.), and of a group of 4 (2 adults, 1 imm, and one banded bird) at Camp Verde, YAV, 30 -31 Dec 2002 (KF, JGr, EM; ph. MMS). The ABC considers the occurrence of Trumpeter Swan in Arizona a result of dispersing “wild" populations, and not individuals from "translocated" populations, unless band data show otherwise.

YELLOW-BILLED LOON Gavia adamsii. Individuals were at Lake Mojave above Davis Dam, MOH, 13 Mar 2000 (ph. MC), accepted on a second round, and at Lake Havasu City, MOH, 1 Feb 2002 - 13 Apr 2002 (ph. MMS, ph. SD; see N. Am. Birds 56:204). These represent only the third and fourth Arizona records. 

LEAST GREBE Tachybaptus dominicus. Accepted reports of this diminutive grebe include singles at Sweetwater Wetlands, Tucson PIM, 13 June-23 July 2000 (ph. MMS, GCo, TS), at that same location on 8 May 2002 - 8 Aug 2002, and again during the winter of 2002-3 (†BZ, KZ, ph. GHR; see N. Am. Birds 57:239), Sam Lena Park, Tucson PIM, 19 Apr - 11 Oct 2003, and intermittently through 2004 (†GB; ph. MMS, ph. GHR), Kino Springs, Nogales SCR, 8 Jul 2004 - 15 Jul 2004 (MHy, ph. MMS), and Kearny Lake, PIN, 24-26 Nov 2004 (MPe, ph. MK). The Sweetwater Wetlands records are considered to pertain to the same individual. This brings the total number of accepted records from Arizona to fourteen.

RED-NECKED GREBE Podiceps grisegena. An individual at Lake Pleasant, MAR, 23 Feb 1998 (†RC) was well described. This represents the seventh Arizona record.

RED-BILLED TROPICBIRD Phaethon aethereus. An immature was picked up alive in Yuma, YUM, 22 Feb 2000 (ph. RHe; *U.A.; see N. Am. Birds 54:207), after being downed by a Pacific storm that passed over Yuma on 21 Feb. The Red-billed Tropicbird breeds in the northern Sea of Cortez and, like other pelagic species that occur in the gulf, have casually strayed to the lower Colorado River.

FRIGATEBIRD sp. Fregata sp. An apparent adult male Fregata was photographed at Mammoth, PIN, 11 May 2004 (ph. JL).  Although the expected Fregata in Arizona is clearly Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens, the lack of written details for this sighting, and the relatively distant and low resolution photographs, do not eliminate the similar Great Frigatebird Fregata minor, which has occurred in North America at least three times, including a specimen taken from Oklahoma (Alderfer 2005). The ABC decided it was prudent to accept this individual as a frigatebird, but not assign it to species.

REDDISH EGRET Egretta rufescens. Numbers of reports of this species in southern and central Arizona have proliferated in recent years. Accepted records, all of immatures, include one at Lake Mojave, MOH, 30 Sep 1999 (†SGo), one at Gilbert Water Ranch, MAR, 27 Aug 2001 (†JSm), one at Roosevelt Lake, GIL, 5 Sep - 3 Oct 2001 (ph. GHR), one at Picacho Reservoir, PIN, 21 Oct - 22 Nov 2001 (B&LW; ph. MMS), one along the Gila River near the Rt. 95 Bridge, YUM, 31 Aug-12 Sep 2002 (DT, †MMS; ph. HD), one-two at Paloma Ranch, MAR, 8-12 Oct 2002 (ph. HD), one at Lakeside Park, Tucson, PIM, 11-12 Oct 2003 (†MMS; ph. MMS, ph. CDB), one at Paloma Ranch, MAR, 2 Jan 2004 (ph. BGr; see N. Am. Birds 58:266), one at Avra Valley S.T.P., PIM, 28 Jun - 6 Jul 2004 (RF; ph. MMS), two at Paloma Ranch, MAR, 4 Jul 2004 (†BGr; ph. PMo, ph. BGr, ph. PD), one at Dateland, YUM, 9 - 13 Jul 2004 (ph. HD, DS), and one at Lakeside Park, Tucson, PIM, 9-22 Jul 2004 (ph. MMS).  This more than doubles the number of records from Arizona, bringing the total to twenty-three.

WHITE IBIS Eudocimus albus.  Accepted records are of a single adult near Arlington, MAR, 27 Dec 2003 - 19 Jan 2003 († D&JL; ph. TC, MMS) and what was likely the same individual at Palo Verde, MAR, 10 May 2003, and again 27 Nov 2004 (EC, D&JL; ph. PD). There were only six previous records from Arizona.

GLOSSY IBIS Plegadis falcinellus.  Arizona's first documented Glossy Ibis was an adult at Arlington, MAR, 19-21 May 2001 (ph. RJ; †MMS; vt. GHR). The next accepted report was of a molting adult in s.w. Phoenix, MAR, 11 Aug 2001 (†TC). The Glossy Ibis has made a significant westward range expansion in recent years (Patten and Lasley 2000), with a total number of accepted California records now totalling six (Cole et al. 2006), including at least two different recent summer California records accepted from agricultural areas nearby to Arizona at the s. end of the Salton Sea (San Miguel and McGrath 2005). Caution should be employed in the identification of Glossy Ibis in Arizona, as well as other western states, due to the known occurrence of hybridization between Glossy and White-faced Ibises (see Aterburn and Grzybowski 2003, Faulkner 2005). At least one known hybrid, showing the characters present in other presumed hybrids, has been documented in the state (at Willcox, COS, 18 Jul 2004; ph. JLD).

ROSEATE SPOONBILL Platalea ajaja. Accepted records are of two along the Gila River near El Mirage Rd., s.w. Phoenix, MAR, 10 Sep 2000 (ph. BGr), three at Arthur Pack Golf Course, Marana, PIM, 22-23 Jul 2004 (RWe; ph. MMS, ph. GHR; see N. Am. Birds 58:632), and one at Nogales, SCR, 23 Aug - 22 Sep 2004 (MG; ph. WT, ph. MMS; see N. Am. Birds 59:126). Although this species was considered a semi-regular post-breeding summer wanderer from Mexico during the 1970s, there have been fewer than ten accepted records for the state since 1990. 

WOOD STORK Mycteria americana. An individual was at Roosevelt Lake, GIL, 20-21 Aug 2002 (ph. JEs, v.t. MPo). At the turn of the 20th century, the Wood Stork was a regular post-breeding visitor to the Lower Colorado River (Phillips 1964, Rosenberg et al. 1991) and to the Salton Sea in California, but populations in Mexico have declined dramatically over the last fifty years and continue to shrink (Patten et al. 2003). Since 1990, there have only been four reports of this species from Arizona. 

RED-SHOULDERED HAWK Buteo lineatus. Accepted records include an imm. at Page, COC, 18 Sep 2000 (†CL), an adult at Hassayampa River Preserve, Wickenburg, MAR 6 Dec 2000 (ph. MMS), one of two individuals reported at this location for at least a year, an imm. along the Santa Cruz River, Tucson, PIM, 3 Nov 2002 (WR; ph. GHR), an imm. at Katherine Landing, MOH, 3 Dec 2002 (†MMS, MPo), an adult at Green Valley, PIM, 10-28 Dec 2002 (RWo, †MMS; ph. KKe), one at Patagonia, SCR, 18 Dec 2004 (†EW), and one along Granite Creek near Prescott, YAV, 16 Oct - 13 Dec 2004 (†CT). The Red-shouldered Hawk continues to gradually expand eastward into agricultural regions of the arid desert west (Patten et al. 2003) from cismontane regions of California. Most, if not all, of the birds reported in Arizona appear to originate from this population.

BROAD-WINGED HAWK Buteo platypterus. Recent accepted records from the Grand Canyon, where this species may occur annually based upon recent hawk-watching counts (Hawk Watch International), include one imm. at Yaki Point, Grand Canyon, COC, 14 Sep 2001 (ph. CVC), and another imm. at Lipan Point, Grand Canyon, COC, 25 Sep 2002 (ph. CVC; see N. Am. Birds 57:100). The only other accepted records were of an adult picked up alive in Chandler, MAR 26 Jan 2003 (ph. AP), which was a surprise as most prior winter reports of this species in the West were of immatures, and another adult in N. Tucson, PIM, 7 Oct 2003 (†RHo). The ABC would still like to review all reports of this species in the state away from the Grand Canyon hawk-watch stations.

SHORT-TAILED HAWK Buteo brachyurus. The presence of two Short-tailed Hawks in Miller Canyon, COS, July to September 1999, established the first physically documented Arizona record (Rosenberg 2001). We report here on the re-evaluation of two prior Arizona sight reports that had been reviewed, but not accepted by the ABC. Accepted records of individuals seen prior to 1999 include one ad. near Barfoot Junction, Chiricahua Mts., COS, 7 Aug 1985 (†JA), and one ad. in Sawmill Canyon, Huachuca Mts., COS, 21 Jul 1988 (†JLD).  Another accepted report that pre-dates the Miller Canyon birds was of one light-morph bird near Onion Saddle, Chiricahua Mts., COS, 5 Apr 1999 (†ML), with likely the same individual reported near Onion Saddle, COS, 22 Aug 1999 (†CDB). Subsequent accepted records include a juv. in Carr Canyon, Huachuca Mts., COS, 5 Aug - 3 Sep 2001 (FG, †CDB), another adult and juv. at Barfoot Park, COS, 21-25 Aug 2001 (†CDB, †KH, JHv, BSc), two light-morph individuals at Barfoot Park, COS, 31 Mar - at least Aug 2002 (CMi, RT; ph. CDB, ph. JBu; see N. Am. Birds 57:144), an adult (28 Jun 2003) along with two juveniles at Barfoot Park, COS, 7-16 Aug 2003 (ph. RHo), and two adults at Barfoot Park, COS, 1 May - at least 3 Jul 2004 (ph. BSu, ph. RS). These reports establish the likely successful nesting of Short-tailed Hawk in Arizona (although no nest has yet been found), as well as an almost annual presence in the Barfoot Park region of the Chiricahua Mts. since 1999.

PURPLE GALLINULE Porphyrio martinica.  A single juv. at Sweetwater Wetlands, Tucson, PIM, 26 Jul - 21 Aug 2002 (BSh, †MMS; ph. JHa) provided only the tenth documented state record.  An erroneously published record of one from Gila Farms Pond near Phoenix, MAR, 1-3 Aug 1991 (Rosenberg and Witzeman 1998) had in fact "not" been accepted by the ABC.

AMERICAN GOLDEN-PLOVER Pluvialis dominica. Accepted records of this casual migrant are of one basic-plumaged individual at Whitewater Draw Wildlife Area, COS, 26 Apr - 7 May 2000 (DW; ph. MMS), two juveniles at Palo Verde/Arlington, MAR, 27-28 Oct 2002 (ph. BGr, ph. GB), one juv. at Paloma Ranch, MAR, 20 Sep 2003 (ph. BGr), and one at Willcox, COS, 24-26 Mar 2004 (RWb; ph. JWo, ph. MMS). A previously published report of this species from Willcox, COS, 16 Sep 1992 (Rosenberg and Witzeman 1998) had in fact been accepted only as a "Golden-Plover sp.", not as an American.

UPLAND SANDPIPER Bartramia longicauda. An individual of this distinctive shorebird at Buenos Aires N.W.R., PIM, 9 May 1989 (†DAS), was accepted on the second round. This record had erroneously been published as accepted in a previous report (Rosenberg and Witzeman 1998). There have been only two additional Upland Sandpiper records accepted by the ABC, as well as a few older specimens and sight reports listed in Monson and Phillips (1981).

RED KNOT Calidris canutus. One juv. was at Willcox, COS, 25-30 Sep 2004 (JHi, ph. NH). There are remarkably few records of Red Knot in Arizona (fewer than 20), considering its abundance along the Sea of Cortez and the neighboring Salton Sea. 

WHITE-RUMPED SANDPIPER Calidris fuscicollis. One observed at Sierra Vista S.T.P., COS, 16-17 May 2000 (†KZ, †BZ; ph. MMS, ph. BZ), and one at Willcox, COS, 15-26 May 2003 (ph. DS, ph. GHR; see N. Am. Birds 57:387), were both well-documented and fit the established timing of spring occurrence in AZ of mid-May to early June (the earliest being 13 May). There were only five previously accepted Arizona records.

SHARP-TAILED SANDPIPER Calidris acuminata. A juvenile of this palearctic species was at Paloma Ranch, Gila Bend, MAR, 2-3 Nov 2003 (ph. BGr; †, ph. RHo, †, ph. RJ, ph. MMS; see N. Am. Birds 58:122) providing just the third Arizona record (all from MAR).

BUFF-BREASTED SANDPIPER Tryngites subruficollis. Arizona's first documented state record of Buff-breasted Sandpiper was of one juvenile at Paloma Ranch, MAR, 11-12 Sep 2002 (†BGr, †MMS; ph. BGr, ph. RJ). Amazingly, a second juv. was discovered at Rouseau Sod Farms, Scottsdale, MAR, 22-29 Sep 2002 (†RJ, ph. RDi, GHR; see N. Am. birds 57:100). This species was considered long overdue in Arizona, given its nearly annual status along the coast in s. California.

RUFF Philomachus pugnax. Accepted records are of a juv. at Picacho Reservoir, PIN, 31 Oct 1997 (†DM), accepted on the second round, and of a well-documented juv. at Dateland Shrimp Ponds, YUM, 21 Sep 2004 - 3 Oct 2004 (†, ph. BGr, ph. GHR, ph. MMS; see N. Am. Birds 59:127). This brings the total number of Arizona records to five.

LAUGHING GULL Larus atricilla. Records accepted include one imm. at Whitewater Draw Wildlife Area, COS, 26 Jul - 13 Aug 2001 (RT, †MMS),  another imm. at Willcox, COS, 2 Jun 2002 (†MMS), one imm. at Willcox, COS, 27 May 2003 (TG; ph. RFa), and one adult at San Carlos Lake, GRA & GIL, 30 Apr 2004 (†KKa). There have been about twenty accepted records from Arizona. 

MEW GULL Larus canus. A first winter individual was photographed at Lake Havasu City, MOH, 27 Nov 1999 (ph. PL).  This establishes about a tenth Arizona record.

WESTERN GULL Larus occidentalis. One sub-adult was at Green Valley S.T.P., PIM, 13-15 Jul 2001 (BSh; ph. MMS).  The only other accepted Arizona record was of an imm. collected at Parker Dam, LAP, 12 Dec 1946 (*U.A.)

GLAUCOUS-WINGED GULL Larus glaucescens. A juvenile was at Palo Verde, MAR, 23 Nov 2003 – 2 Jan 2004 (†TC, ph. GHR, ph. RJ, ph. MMS, ph. GB, ph. CDB); see N. Am. Birds 58:123). This provided only the sixth record for Arizona, and the first since 1981.

BLACK-LEGGED KITTIWAKE Rissa tridactyla. An old report of one imm. at Painted Rock Dam, MAR, 16 Nov 1980 (†GHR) was accepted. This species has become decidedly scarce in Arizona during the past twenty years, with only six accepted sightings since 1990.

ELEGANT TERN Thalasseus elegans. One first-summer individual was at Avra Valley S.T.P., Tucson, PIM, 18-31 Jul 2001 (RT; ph. MMS, ph. GHR; see N. Am. Birds 55:506 - mislabeled), where it was eventually found dead (*U.A.), and one was at Whitewater Draw Wildlife Area, COS, 21 Jul 2001 (†KKe). These provided only the fourth and fifth Arizona records for this species.

BLACK SKIMMER Rynchops niger. Accepted records are of a juv. observed at Gilbert/ Riggs Rd. Pond, Chandler, MAR, 14 Oct 2000 (JT, †RJ †RHo; ph. MMS, ph., v.t. RJ) and of an adult at Lakeside Park, e. Tucson, PIM, 9 May 2002 (BR; ph MMS; see N. Am. Birds 56:338). This brings the total number of accepted records in the state to seven.

POMARINE JAEGER Stercorarius pomarinus. A truly amazing inland sight record of four (one adult) flying along Interstate 19 just north of Green Valley, PIM, 26 Apr 2002 (†LL) was accepted on the second round. The ABC decision to accept this report without photographic evidence was partially based on a similar accepted record from the n. end of the Salton Sea in California where a flock of 27 Pomarine Jaegers was detected 4 May 1986 (Patten et al. 2003). This establishes a sixth Arizona record, and the first for se. Arizona.

PARASITIC JAEGER Stercorarius parasiticus. One juv. at Willcox, COS, 11-21 Sep 2002 (†, ph. MMS; ph. SHe, ph. GHR) provided about the tenth Arizona record.

LONG-TAILED JAEGER Stercorarius longicaudus. Accepted records are of one adult at Nelson Reservoir, APA, 11 Aug 2002 (ph. DG), and of a juv. at Ashurst Lake, COC, 28-29 Aug 2004 (JHi, CL; †, ph. JP, ph. JEs; see N. Am. Birds 59:128). There were nine previously accepted Arizona records for this species. 

EURASIAN COLLARED-DOVE Streptopelia decaocto. The rapid expansion of this dove across North America has been extraordinary, and its proliferation in Arizona has been no exception. Documented occurrences are of two at Eagar, APA, 11 Mar 2000 (GC, DR; ph. BJ), two at Aguila, MAR, 5 May 2000 (ph. BGr), two at Willcox, COS, 24 Sep 2000 (ph. MMS), one at P.A.P. pecan grove, PIM, 25 Sep 2000 (†CDB), 10 at Fredonia, COC, 26 Nov 2000 (†TC, †MMS), one at Palo Verde, MAR, 20 May 2001 (ph. TC), and one at Roper Lake S.P., GRA, 10 Jan 2002 (†MMS). Because of this rapid expansion in Arizona, and the fact that it now occurs commonly, but still rather locally, throughout the state, Eurasian Collared-Dove has been removed from the ABC review list.

RUDDY GROUND-DOVE  Columbina talpacoti.  One accepted from Portal, COS, 31 Dec 1989 (RSc), and one from Granite Reef Recreation Area, MAR, 17 Dec 1992 (†JWa). The ABC no longer reviews reports of this species after 1996.

GROOVE-BILLED ANI Crotophaga sulcirostris. Singles were found at s.w. Phoenix, MAR, 23 Nov 2000 (†JZ), at Arivaca, SCR, 16 Jun 2004 (ph. BSp, CS), and at San Pedro House, COS, 22 Oct 2004 (EW, JWh, ph. CMe). There have been very few recent records of this vagrant from Mexico, and it will remain on the review list.  

BUFF-COLLARED NIGHTJAR Caprimulgus ridgwayi. Accepted records of singing individuals included one bird at Chino Canyon, SCR, 16 Jul 2001 (†DQ), accepted on second round, one at Oro Blanco Mine, SCR, 26 Apr - 25 Aug 2002 (KN, JEl, †MMS), one at Oro Blanco Mine, SCR, 26 May - 22 Aug (†MMS, RHo), and one at Proctor Road, below Madera Canyon, PIM, 6-18 Jun 2004 (DCo, BSu, †MMS). Historically, this species is a scarce and intermittent late spring and summer visitor from Mexico, with breeding in the state being documented only twice. Numbers have seemingly declined in the state since the 1980s, perhaps due to drought (see Corman and Wise-Gervais 2005). Given this recent decline, it will remain on the ABC's review list.

BLACK SWIFT Cypseloides niger. One was observed in direct comparison with White-throated Swifts at Mormon Lake, Flagstaff, COC, 13 May 2000 (†JGr), and another was observed in a flock of White-throateds at Sky Harbor Airport, Phoenix, MAR, 19 Sep 2001 (†EB). This brings the total number of accepted Arizona records to four, yet there still remains no physical evidence for this species in the state. 

BERYLLINE HUMMINGBIRD Amazilia beryllina. Accepted records are of a female with nest at Ramsey Canyon, COS, 22 Apr - 14 May 2001 (STu, MPr †MMS; ph. GHR), and another female tending a nest with two young at Ramsey Canyon, COS, 8-10 Aug 2004 (TMo; ph. JHy). This species remains a casual spring and summer visitor to the canyons of s.e. Arizona. In recent years, multiple apparent hybrids involving Berylline Hummingbird have been photographed in canyons of the Huachuca Mts. resulting in repeated misidentifications.

PLAIN-CAPPED STARTHROAT Heliomaster constantii. Individuals were observed at the Paton’s residence in Patagonia, SCR, 7-16 Oct 1997 (WP; v.t. CDB), at French Joe Canyon, COS, 25 Jul - 3 Sep 2001 (BSh, †MMS, †MJI), at Miller Canyon, COS, 29 Jun – 2 Jul 2002, where banded (SW, ph. TW, ph. GW), and then in Ash Canyon, Huachuca, COS, 12 Jul - 3 Sep 2002 (MJB). The banded individual returned to the same feeders in Ash Canyon 19 Jun – 17 Sep 2003 (RRo, CSr; ph. MMS, DS, KR, JWo). This brings the total number of accepted records from Arizona to thirteen, yet no fewer than ten published reports have not been reviewed by the ABC.

RUBY-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD  Archilochus colubris. Arizona's first Ruby-throated Hummingbird was a female first discovered at a feeder in Tucson, PIM, 20 Dec 2004, confirmed 1 Jan 2005, and remained there until 14 Apr 2005 (†, ph. RHo; ph. DS, ph. SW; see N. Am. Birds 59:306). Close-up photographs, in-hand measurements (SW), and excellent treatment in Pyle (1997) of the identification of this species from the very similar Black-chinned Hummingbird (Archilochus alexandri) allowed for the confirmation of this long sought-after first state record. 

CALLIOPE HUMMINGBIRD Stellula calliope. Rarely documented in Arizona in winter, a first-year female frequented a feeder in Tucson, PIM, 15 Dec 2000 - 13 Apr 2001 (SB, RHo; ph. MMS, BSa, TE), providing Arizona with its second-ever winter record.

EARED QUETZAL Euptilotis neoxenus. An adult male was in Miller Canyon, COS, 14 Nov - 20 Dec 1999 (MT, STu; ph. MMS; v.t. GHR), and another adult male was in c. Arizona along Snake Creek near the Black River, GRE, 24 Aug 2002 (†DCa). There have been about twenty accepted records from Arizona, yet only four since 1995. 

YELLOW-BELLIED SAPSUCKER Sphyrapicus varius. Accepted records are of one at  Patagonia Lake, SCR, 21 Jan 2000 (†SMo), one at Kino Springs, Nogales, SCR, 21 Jan - 22 Feb 2003 (†RHo; ph. GHR), one in Pasture Canyon, COC, 5 Nov 2003 (ph. JC), one along Sonoita Creek below Patagonia Lake, SCR, 24-31 Oct 2004 (WR; ph. GHR), another there 18 Feb 2004 (†MMS, DS), one in Madera Canyon, SCR, 18 Feb 2004 (ph. RHo), and one at Betty's Kitchen, YUM, 18 Dec 2004 (JCk). This species was removed from the ABC review list in 2006.

RED-BREASTED SAPSUCKER Sphyrapicus ruber. Accepted records are one at P.A.P. pecan grove, PIN, 9-18 Feb 2001 (MPl, ph. DSm, ph. MMS), one at E. Tucson, PIM, 10 Feb 2001- 4 Mar 2001 (ph. MMS), accepted on second round, an adult at Oak Flat Campground, PIN, 4 Jan 2004 - 7 Feb 2004 (PMo, ph. CD, ph. MMS), one at Mittry Lake, YUM, 18 Dec 2004 (†JCk, HD), and one at Betty's Kitchen, YUM, 18-30 Dec 2004 (†JCk, HD). All of these individuals were considered "relatively pure" and within the published degree of individual variation found within Red-breasted Sapsucker (Johnson and Johnson 1985). Due to the high degree of apparent hybridization amongst sapsuckers, the Red-breasted Sapsucker will remain an ABC review species. 

EASTERN WOOD-PEWEE Contopus virens. A singing individual well-described along the S.P.R. near Fairbank, COS, 13 Jun 2001 (†JMc) represents only a fourth accepted record for the state.

LEAST FLYCATCHER Empidonax minimus. Accepted records include a previously unpublished report of one along the Salt R. near Blue Point, MAR, 22 Dec 1986 (†DS), a non-vocalizing individual very well-described by experienced observers along Sonoita Cr. near Patagonia, SCR, 13 May 2000 (†BZ, KZ), one at Page, COC, 14 Sep 2000 (†CL), and a well-described individual at Cameron, COC, 5 Sep 2004 (†JC, CL). Published historical records (Monson and Phillips 1981) of this difficult-to-identify flycatcher include three specimens collected along the Big Sandy Valley, MOJ, 20 Oct 1951, one collected in the Tule Mts., YUM, 29 Sep 1956, and one collected in s.w. Phoenix, MAR, 12 Apr 1978. The only other sight report accepted by the ABC was of one seen at Arivaca L., PIM, 28 Nov 1996 (see Rosenberg 2001).

GREAT-CRESTED FLYCATCHER Myiarchus crinitus. A previously published report (Monson and Phillips 1981) of one near Kayenta, NAV, 9 Oct 1980 (†DSt) was re-evaluated and accepted by the ABC. Committee members noted the observer's experience, long duration of observation, several supporting field characters (including olive back and pale base to the lower mandible), and lack of any Brown-crested Flycatcher records from n. Arizona, as contributing factors warranting acceptance. Another Great-Crested at Portal, COS, 17 Sep 2002 (†RWb) provided only a third accepted record for Arizona. There is one old specimen from the state, a bird collected in the Huachuca Mts., COS, 3 Jun, 1901 (Monson and Phillips 1981).

GREAT KISKADEE Pitangus sulphuratus. One seen along Sonoita Creek above  Patagonia L., SCR, 18 Mar 2000 (†BWo) established only a third accepted record  from Arizona.

WHITE-EYED VIREO Vireo griseus. Accepted records are of one at Portal, COS, 6-7 May 2000 (BRa, ph. MS), one in Florida Canyon, PIM, 21 Jul - 27 August 2000 (WL; †MMS), one in n.e. Tucson, PIM, 13-14 Apr 2002 (BN, †MMS), one in Flagstaff, COC, 14 May 2003 (†JP), one near Onion Saddle, Chiricahua Mts., COS, 2 Aug 2004 (†KG), and one in E. Whitetail Canyon, Chiricahua Mts., COS, 22 Aug 2004 (†RT). This brings the total number of accepted records from Arizona to eighteen.

BLACK-CAPPED VIREO Vireo atricapillus. An historic report of this distinctive vireo, based on an individual netted and banded (but not photographed) in Tucson, PIM, 8 Apr 1970 (CC), with the details published  in Western Bird Bander (vol 46:42) in 1971, was evaluated and accepted by the ABC, officially adding this species to the Arizona list. There still remains no physical documentation for this vireo in Arizona.

YELLOW-THROATED VIREO Vireo flavifrons. Three accepted records, one from Madera Canyon, SCR, 21 Aug 1993 († MMe), one from Miller Canyon, COS, 24 Jun - 5 Jul 2001 (JHu, SGa, †MMS et al.; s.r. CDB), and one from Sonoita Creek near Patagonia, SCR, 24 Aug 2004 (PG, †DS; ph. GA).

BLUE-HEADED VIREO Vireo solitarius. One accepted record of a very bright individual in Sabino Canyon, Tucson, PIM, 23 Oct 2004 (†WR, †MMS, †GHR; ph. GHR). Although the photograph alone was thought by some members to be consistent with the identification, but not diagnostic, the bird was heard singing in direct comparison with a Cassin's Vireo (Vireo cassinii), and multiple descriptions submitted were adequate for unanimous acceptance. There were only two previously accepted records from Arizona (Rosenberg and Witzeman 1999), and there remains no definitive physical documentation of this species for the state.

RED-EYED VIREO Vireo olivaceus. Six records accepted for this report. One was at the P.A.P. pecan grove, PIM, 25 May 2000 (ph. RHo), one was at Ganado L., APA, 26-29 Sep 2002 (†CBa, †MMS), one was at Roger Road S.T.P., Tucson, PIM, 9-11 Oct 2002 (†GB, †MMS), one was at Kitt Peak, PIM, 11 Oct 2002 (†RHo), one was at the B.T.A., PIN, 1-7 Sep 2003 (†CST; ph. KR), and one was at Dudleyville, PIN, 29 May 2004 (†DJe). Because the frequency of reports in Arizona has declined during the past 20 years, and due to its similarity to Yellow-green Vireo (Vireo flavoviridis), the Red-eyed Vireo will remain a review species in Arizona.

YELLOW-GREEN VIREO Vireo flavoviridis. The only accepted record was of one at Portal, COS, 14 Jul 2001 (†TD, ph. MHa). Of the six accepted records from Arizona, four have been discovered in July, one in late June, and one in May (Rosenberg 2001), a pattern that is similar to the pattern of occurence in the Rio Grande Valley, Texas, as opposed to the pattern of vagrancy in California, where most of the records have occurred in fall.

CAVE SWALLOW Petrochelidon fulva. One well-described from Willcox, COS, 20 Oct 2004 (†DS) represents only a fifth accepted record from Arizona, and the first since 1991 (Rosenberg and Witzeman 1999).

BLACK-CAPPED CHICKADEE Poecile atricapillus. Reports of two individuals at Tsegi Canyon, Navajo National Mon., NAV, 25 May 2000 (†RG), one at Colorado City, MOH, 27 Nov 2000 (†TC, †MMS), and two at Teec Nos Pos, APA, 15 Dec 2000 - 3 Feb 2001 (†TC, CL; ph. MMS, v.t. GHR) were accepted. This brings the total number of accepted records in Arizona to nine, all having occurred in the northern portion of the state close to the Utah border.

CAROLINA WREN Thryothorus ludovicinaus. One individual frequenting a yard in Tolleson, MAR, 7 Sep - 11 Oct 2003 (ph. BGr; see N. Am. Birds 58:124) was only a second Arizona record. Arizona's first record of this wren was of one along the lower S.P.R. at Cook's Lake Jun 1999 - fall 2000 (Rosenberg 2001).

BLACK-CAPPED GNATCATCHER Polioptila nigriceps. Accepted records are of two in Leslie Canyon, Chiricahua Mts., COS 16 Apr 2003+ (v.t. NMC), one along Proctor Road, Santa Rita Mts., PIM, 9 Aug 2003 (†SF), two in Montosa Canyon, Santa Rita Mts., SCR, 1 Oct - 1 Dec 2003+ (†RHo), two at Patagonia L., SCR, 22 Apr 2003 - 2005 (ph. JZ et al.; ph. RHo, PK, SHe), two at Rock Corral Spring, SCR, 30 Jan - 23 Feb 2004 (†MMS; MK, DS, DP et al.), and two along Sonoita Creek below Patagonia L., SCR, 18 Feb 2004 (†MMS, †DS). Although most of the above sightings involved pairs, the only confirmed nesting involved a pair at Patagonia L., SCR, originally found Oct 2002 (MPo; †RHo; ph. DN), which nested successfully there in 2003, 2004, and 2005. Historically, influxes of this species from Mexico have occurred sporadically and have persisted for a few years afterwards, but the 2003 incursion appears to be the most widespread, and longest lasting.

WOOD THRUSH Hylocichla mustelina. Two accepted records, one at Scottsdale, MAR, 28 Nov 2000 (MV; ph. RDi), and the other at B.T.A., PIN, 20 Oct - 3 Nov 2002 (CW;  †MMS, ph. KR; see N. Am. Birds 57:101). There are about twelve accepted records for Arizona.

AZTEC THRUSH Ridgwayia pinicola. The only accepted record was of one at Madera Canyon, SCR, 10-18 Aug 2000 (ph. DS). This represents about a fifteenth accepted record for Arizona (not including  several published but undocumented reports), and the first report since the invasion of 16+ individuals in s.e. Arizona during August and September 1996 (Rosenberg and Witzeman 1999).

RUFOUS-BACKED ROBIN  Turdus rufopalliatus. One accepted from Patagonia L. State Park, SCR, 12 Feb 1998 (ph. BZ). The ABC no longer reviews reports of this species after 1999.

WHITE WAGTAIL Motacilla alba. This previously published Arizona wagtail record from the South Rim of the Grand Canyon, COC, 6-10 Oct 1985 (Rosenberg and Witzeman 1999; page 101) was re-evaluated to determine whether it was a "White" M.a. ocularis or "Black-backed" Wagtail M. a. lugens, given a recent increase in our understanding of identification of the two forms (Sibley and Howell 1998). Careful studies of the photos of the Grand Canyon bird confirm that the individual was a "White" Wagtail, given our current understanding of the critical plumage characters. Since this record was evaluated by the committee, the A.O.U. has lumped the two forms into a single species, White Wagtail Motacilla alba (Banks et al. 2005).

RED-THROATED PIPIT Anthus cervinus. At the request of a committee member, the details of a spring male Red-throated Pipit from the Avra Valley S.T.P., PIM, 2 May 1989 (†JHo) were re-evaluated given that this species had been photographed in Arizona at Kayenta, NAV, 12-17 Oct 1989 (Rosenberg and Witzeman 1999). The ABC agreed unanimously that the details were indeed sufficient to warrant acceptance, and noted several features within the description that ruled out alternate plumaged American Pipit.

BOHEMIAN WAXWING  Bombycilla garrulus.  A single Bohemian was seen feeding along with a flock of 12 Cedar Waxwings (Bombycilla cedrorum) in Lutz Canyon, COS, 16 Dec 2004 (†SK). This establishes the first accepted report since 1984 (Rosenberg 2001).

TENNESSEE WARBLER Vermivora peregrina. One accepted record of one at the Phoenix Zoo, MAR, 5-17 Oct 2002 (†RJ). A decrease in reports in recent years has prompted the ABC to retain this species on its review list.

CRESCENT-CHESTED WARBLER Parula supercilliosa. Accepted records include one in Madera Canyon, SCR, 24 May-1 Jun 2001 (†MMS, KKr), and another in Madera Canyon, SCR, 25-28 Apr 2003 (JK, PK, RWo; †MMS, †GB). These represent only the fourth and fifth records from Arizona.

TROPICAL PARULA Parula pitiayumi. Arizona's second-ever Tropical Parula was a singing male at Miller Canyon, COS, 22 Jun - 14 Jul 2001 (JBo; †, ph. MMS; v.t. GHR, s.r. CDB). The other Arizona record was of one in Madera Canyon, SCR, 14 Jul-13 Sep 1984 (Rosenberg and Witzeman 1999).

"MANGROVE" YELLOW WARBLER Dendroica petechia bryanti. One of the more astounding reports in recent times was of a worn adult male "Mangrove" Warbler netted in salt cedar habitat, and photographed in the hand, along the northern edge of Roosevelt L., GIL, 31 Jul 2004 (PN; ph. NBa; see N. Am. Birds 58:632). This represents the first Arizona record of this form, as well as a first interior western U.S. record. The closest this form occurs to Arizona is coastal central Sonora, Mexico.

MAGNOLIA WARBLER Dendroica magnolia. Seven reports were accepted, including one along Hospital Ridge near Clint's Well, COC, 4 Jun 2000 (†PSw), one in Scottsdale, MAR, 24-25 Oct 2000 (JBa; †MMS, ph. TC), one in Continental, PIM, 15 Feb - 16 Apr  2001 (SJ, †MMS), one at Patagonia Roadside Rest, SCR, 23 May 2002 (JMo; †MMS; v.t. MPo), one at the Phoenix Zoo, MAR, 11 Oct 2002 (†RJ), one at Topock Marsh, MOH, 2 Dec 2002 (†MMS, MPo), and one along Yellow Jacket Creek near Prescott, YAV, 1 Oct 2003 (†WA). This brings the total number of records in the state to about thirty.

BLACKBURNIAN WARBLER Dendroica fusca. Two accepted records, one at Cameron, COC, 23-24 Sep 2003 (JC, CL; †MMS), and one at Morgan City Wash, along the Agua Fria River near Lake Pleasant, MAR, 9-11 Oct 2003 (TC, JBa; †RJ). There have been only about sixteen records from Arizona accepted by the ABC.

YELLOW-THROATED WARBLER Dendroica dominica. Two July records accepted, one from Casa Grande, PIN, 5 Jul 2001 (†NBo), and one from Ramsey Canyon, COS, 3 Jul 2004 (†JMn). This brings the total number of accepted records from the state to seventeen, with an additional five published reports not reviewed by the ABC (Rosenberg and Witzeman 1999).

PINE WARBLER Dendroica pinus. Once considered one of the rarer "eastern" warblers that had occurred in the state, but more common in recent years, an additional five records were accepted, including one at Bisbee, COS, 5-10 Jan 2000 (WWa, HB; †MMS; ph. MMS), one at the Phoenix Zoo, MAR, 1 Oct 2000 (†, v.t. RJ), one in s.w. Phoenix, MAR, 8 Oct 2001 (†CBa), one in Marana, PIM, 8-11 Mar 2002 (†RHo), and one in Tolleson, MAR, 19 Dec 2004 (†, ph. BGr). This brings the total number of accepted records from Arizona to twelve, with the first state record having occurred as recently as 1988 (Rosenberg and Witzeman 1999).

PRAIRIE WARBLER Dendroica discolor. Similar to Pine Warbler, the status of Prairie Warbler appears to be changing in the state, with an additional six records accepted, including one in Spencer Canyon, COC, 26 Feb 1998 (†CL), on at Topock, MOH, 27 Nov 1999 (ph. PL), one from the Verde River, Fort McDowell Indian Reservation, MAR, 16 Dec 1999 (†TC), one from St. David, COS, 8 May 2000 (†PW), one from Roper Lake S.P., GRA, 5-13 Jan 2002 (BMe; ph. MMS) and one from Madera Canyon, SCR, 21 May 2003 (†PS). There had been only three previously accepted records from Arizona (Rosenberg and Witzeman 1999; Rosenberg 2001), and an additional three published reports not reviewed by the ABC (Monson and Phillips 1981).

PALM WARBLER Dendroica palmarum. Accepted records are of one from Avra Valley S.T.P., PIM, 23-31 Oct 2002 (MPo; †MMS), one at Sweetwater Wetlands, PIM, 31 Oct 2002 (†DJ), one at Golden Shores, L.C.R.V., MOH, 2 Dec 2002 (†MMS, MPo), one at Kino Springs, SCR, 12 Dec 2002 - 21 Mar 2003 (HBe et al.; ph. KKe), one from Prescott, YAV, 4 Oct 2004 (†BP), and one from Portal, COS, 30 Oct 2004 (†NMC). Although there are nearly 50 published reports of this species from Arizona, a recent paucity of sightings has prompted the ABC to return the Palm Warbler to the review list again.

BAY-BREASTED WARBLER Dendroica castanea. An old record from Ganado L., APA, 6 Oct 1978 (ph. STe, †GHR), that had not been accepted based on brief written details, was re-submitted along with a photo, and subsequently accepted. Additional accepted records were of one at Tuba City, COC, 20 Oct 1996 (†CL), and of one at Box Bar Recreation Area, Verde R., MAR, 13 Oct 2004 (ph. JBu). There have been ten previously accepted Arizona records.

BLACKPOLL WARBLER Dendroica striata. Only two new records accepted by the ABC, one from Page, COC, 8 Sep 2000 (†CL), and another from the Phoenix Zoo, MAR, 27 Sep 2000 (†, v.t. RJ). After a relatively large number of reports in the 1980s and early 1990s, this species has become inexplicably scarce in Arizona in recent years, despite its regular status in fall along the California coast.

CANADA WARBLER Wilsonia canadensis. One record accepted by the ABC was of a spring male at South Fork of Cave Creek Canyon, Chiricahua Mts., COS, 23 May 2004 (†CMa). There are fewer than ten accepted records of this species from Arizona, the last being from 1992 (Rosenberg and Witzeman 1999).

SLATE-THROATED REDSTART Myioborus miniatus. A single accepted record of one at Madera Canyon, SCR, 16 May 2003 (†SBa) was only the fifth ever from Arizona.

RUFOUS-CAPPED WARBLER Basileuterus rufifrons. A single Rufous-capped Warbler was located in French Joe Canyon, COS, 1 Nov 1999 (†KKe), relocated there 14 Dec 1999 (†MMS et al.), and subsequently was present there, off and on with a second individual, through at least 27 Jun 2004 (ph. MR, ph. GHR, m.ob.). Nesting was confirmed 7 Aug 2001 (†JZi), as well as in 2002 and 2003. Additional accepted records include one near Old Sawmill Spring, Carr Canyon, COS, 23 Sep 2000 (ph. RHo), one in Garden Canyon, COS, 2 Sep 2002 (†HBe), one in Paradise, COS, 30 Nov 2002 (†JGe), one along South Fork of Cave Creek near Portal, COS, 27 Apr 2004 (DJa; ph. RWb, ph. RSh; see cover N. A. Birds 54 (2)), and one in Sycamore Canyon, SCR, 28 July 2004 (ph. DS). The French Joe Canyon individuals may represent a continual presence in that canyon after the original sightings there in 1995 (Rosenberg and Witzeman 1999). This brings the total number of Arizona records accepted by the ABC to about sixteen.

SCARLET TANAGER Piranga olivacea. Accepted records are of one at the Phoenix Zoo, MAR, 4 Oct 2001 (†RJ), an adult male at Patagonia, SCR, 20-23 May 2002 (RBa; †MMS, ph, JMu), one at Parker, LAP, 6 Dec 2003 (†CBa), one at Wenima Wildlife Area near Springerville, APA, 11 May 2004 (†GC), and one in Eagar, APA, 10-11 Sep 2004 (†CBa). There are about twenty accepted records for the state, with an additional eight reports, mostly from the 1970s and 1980s, published in American Birds, but never reviewed by the ABC (Rosenberg and Witzeman 1999).

FLAME-COLORED TANAGER Piranga bidentata. The status of Flame-colored Tanager in Arizona continues to be complicated given the possibility of hybridization with Western Tanager (Piranga ludoviciana) (see Rosenberg 2001). Accepted records of Flame-coloreds showing no signs of hybridization include a male along South Fork of Cave Creek Canyon, COS, 5 May 2001 (†CG), a female in Miller Canyon, COS, 5 May 2001 (†MMS), a male in Miller Canyon, COS, 4 Jul 2001 (†MMS et al.), a singing male there 10-21 Apr+ 2002 (†RHo; †, ph. JPa), a male in Madera Canyon, SCR, 2 May - 30 Jul 2003 (†MMS, MZ; ph. RFa, ph. BF; see N. Am. Birds 57:431), with a female present there 18 May 2003+ (†MMS, SBa; ph. RFr), and likely the same pair present there beginning 1 Apr - 29 Jun 2004 (BGi, †MMS; ph. MMS, ph. GHR et al.; see N. Am. Birds 58:463), with a nest confirmed 10 May 2004 (ph. MMS). The possibility of hybrids are still of great concern, with at least one documented in Garden Canyon, COS, 16 May 2000 (ph. BZ; †MMS).

EASTERN TOWHEE Pipilo erythophthalmus. A male Eastern Towhee was discovered along Sonoita Creek near Patagonia, SCR, 3 Jan - 13 Feb 2000+ (JMc, †RHo; ph. MMS, ph. GHR, ph., s.r. RHo) establishing a first Arizona record. The second state record was of a male in a yard in Flagstaff, COC, 15 Dec 2002 - 24 Apr 2003 (ph. JC).

BOTTERI'S SPARROW Aimophila botterii. Although technically not a review species, a winter report of this species was evaluated and accepted by the ABC from near Sierra Vista, COS, 2 Jan 2000 (†DK, JR), establishing a first winter record for Arizona.

AMERICAN TREE SPARROW Spizella arborea. Accepted records are of one from Wenima Wildlife Area near Springerville, APA, 12 Dec 2002 - 10 Feb 2003 (DR;  †MPo), and one at Sedona, YAV, 21 Dec 2002 (†JPr). This species remains casual and seldom reported at best in Arizona, with virtually all records from the northern portion of the state.

FIELD SPARROW Spizella pusilla. Accepted records are of one well-described individual at Willow Tank near Portal, COS, 13 Mar 2000 (†RT), one near Sonoita, SCR, 19-20 Mar 2000 (†PMc), and one in Portal, COS, 31 Oct 2004 (v.t. NMC). There were only three other previously accepted Arizona records (Rosenberg 2001).

LE CONTE'S SPARROW  Ammodrammus leconteii.  A well-documented individual was present along the Santa Cruz River in Marana, PIM, 19 Dec 2004 - 10 Feb 2005 (†KK, PS; ph. DS, ph. GHR; see N. Am. Birds 59:371); the only previous Arizona record was one at Topock, MOH, 29 Nov 1981 (Rosenberg and Witzeman 1999).

NELSON'S SHARP-TAILED SPARROW Ammodramus nelsoni. A stunning Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow was discovered and photographed at Avra Valley S.T.P., PIM, 7-8 Oct 2003 (†GB, †, ph. RHo; ph. CDB), documenting a first record for Arizona.

"SOOTY" FOX SPARROW Passerella iliaca unalaschensis. Accepted records of this form in Arizona are of one in Sahuarita, PIM, 26 Mar 2002 (ph. CCa), and one that wintered at the B.T.A., PIN, 26 Oct 2002 - Mar 2003 (PMo, CD; ph. GHR). These photos represent two of the few substantiated records in Arizona of this Pacific Northwest form (Monson and Phillips 1981).

LAPLAND LONGSPUR Calcarius lapponicus. Three fall and winter records accepted, one in the San Rafael Grasslands, SCR, 20-24 Jan 2000 (†PL; ph. MMS), a group of at least seven in sod fields on the Salt River Indian Reservation near Scottsdale, MAR, 5-9 Mar 2001 (ASp; ph. RJo), and another one at this location 7 Nov 2003 (ph. RJo). There are still fewer than fifteen accepted records of this longspur from Arizona.

SNOW BUNTING Plectophenax nivalis. Arizona's second-ever Snow Bunting was present at the Thatcher S.T.P., GRA, 11-20 Apr 2002 (BMe, JWi, †RHo; ph. GHR). The first state record was a specimen from Littlefield, MOH, 3 Nov 1981 (Boyce and Elliot 1983).

"WHITE-WINGED" DARK-EYED JUNCO Junco hyemalis aikeni. The 2000-2001 winter saw an invasion of "White-winged" Juncos into Arizona and the west. Accepted records are of one at Mormon Lake, COC, 8-14 Dec 2000 (†CL; ph. RHo), one at Many Farms, APA, 15 Dec 2000 (ph. GHR; †MMS;), one at Tucson, PIM, 19 Dec 2000 - 5 Mar 2001 (KKr, †, ph. MMS; v.t. GHR), and one at Molino Basin, Santa Catalina Mts., PIM, 8-11 Mar 2001 (†MMS; ph. GHR; see N. Am. Birds 55:208). The only other Arizona records appear to be at least seven collected at Flagstaff and the White Mts. Nov 1936 - Feb 1937 (Phillips et al. 1964), and another specimen obtained from Flagstaff 23 Feb 1971 (Monson and Phillips 1981). Caution should be exercised  in identifying this form in Arizona, as a small percentage of "Slate-colored"  Dark-eyed Juncos can show white wing-bars .

YELLOW GROSBEAK Pheucticus chrysopeplus. Two accepted records, one in Ash Canyon, COS, 18-28 Jun 2002 (ph. TMu, †JWh), and one at the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum near Tucson, PIM, 17-21 May 2004 (†LH; ph GHR, MMS; see N. Am. Birds 58:463). It should be noted that it was determined that no Yellow Grosbeak was missing from the aviary at the Desert Museum. There were twelve previously accepted records of this Mexican stray from Arizona (Rosenberg and Witzeman 1999), with virtually all of them from either June or July.

VARIED BUNTING Passerina versicolor. Although not a review species in Arizona, an unseasonal report of a male along the San Pedro River near Hereford, COS, 7-21 Mar 2004 (ph. JWo) was evaluated and accepted by the ABC, establishing the earliest-ever report of this species in the state, or possibly only a second wintering record from Arizona.

RUSTY BLACKBIRD Euphagus carolinus. Accepted records are of one in Pasture Canyon near Tuba City, COC, 26 Dec 2002 - 10 Jan 2003 (CL; ph. MMS), and one at Ganado Lake, APA, 22 Jan 2003 (†PL). There are only about ten previously accepted records from Arizona, all except one occurring before 1990 (Rosenberg and Witzeman 1999).

COMMON GRACKLE Quiscalus quiscula. Single individuals were at Apache Lake Marina Resort, MAR, 27 Feb - 18 Mar 2001 (†, ph. RJo; ph. MMS), near Jake's Corner, GIL, 2 Nov 2002 (ph. KR), in Flagstaff, COC, 9 Sep 2004 (ph. JC), and in Eagar, APA, 15 Oct 2004 (ph. DR). This brings the total number of records accepted by the ABC to twelve.

ORCHARD ORIOLE Icterus spurius. Accepted records are of one coming to a feeder in Tucson, PIM, 7-8 Jan 1997 (EGo; ph. MMS), one along the Santa Cruz R. near Marana, PIM, 9-15 Feb 2003 (KKe, ph. RHo), and one in Tucson, PIM, 4-27 Mar 2004 (JO; †MMS, ph. GB), and again there 10 Apr 2005 (JO; †MMS). All of the accepted records of this species in Arizona in the past ten years have involved winter sightings.

BALTIMORE ORIOLE Icterus galbula. One male in n.e. Tucson, PIM, 8 May 2002 (†MMS), another male at Hunt, APA, 8-10 May (†, ph. JV), and yet another adult male in Cave Creek Canyon, COS, 15-17 May 2002 (†SHn; v.t. SMl), were the only reports received for this species.

BLACK ROSY-FINCH Leucosticte atrata. A belated report of six at Sunset Crater N.M. near Flagstaff, COC, 6 Dec 1996 (†GHR) occurred at the same time that a flock was documented along the Echo Cliffs s. of Page during the winter of 1996-7. Amazingly, a flock of up to 65 individuals was at the same site along the Echo Cliffs, COC, 26 Nov 2000-3Feb 2001 (†, ph. MMS, †, ph. TC, CL, ph. RHo).

PURPLE FINCH  Carpodacus purpureus. One accepted report of a pair coming to a feeder in Patagonia, SCR, 15-21 Mar 2003 (†SA; ph. DS). Due to its casual-at-best status in Arizona, this seldom-reported species has been returned to the review list of the ABC.


Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula. The report of a female at Sedona S.T.P., YAV, 21 Dec 2002 was not accepted due to a lack of a documenting photo, and because other observers felt the bird in question was a Greater Scaup (Aythyra marila), thus explaining a lack of any visible "tuft". There is only one accepted Arizona record of Tufted Duck.

Black Vulture Coragyps atratus. The description of one reported at Clarkdale, YAV, 5 Sep 1998 lacked sufficient detail to rule out the more expected imm. Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura). Black Vulture is unexpected anywhere in Arizona north of the Phoenix area.

Mississippi Kite Ictinia mississippiensis. The report of one out of range from  Prescott, YAV, 20 Jun 1999 indicated that the bird was only briefly seen (5-8 seconds), and lacked enough detail to eliminate confusing species. 

Red-shouldered Hawk Buteo lineatus.  Records submitted, but not accepted include one at Cottonwood, YAV, 31 Dec 1985, one at the mouth of Quartermaster Canyon, Colorado R., COC, 27 Feb 1998, and one in Pasture Canyon, COC, 3 Oct 2000. While each of these reports were considered "likely correct" and received six positive votes on second round voting, at least two committee members felt the descriptions were too brief for acceptance.

Broad-winged Hawk Buteo platypterus. A report of this species from Barfoot Lookout Trail, Chiricahua Mts., COS, 6 Aug 1995, was erroneously reported as "accepted" (Rosenberg and Witzeman 1998). Other reports, one from Skull Valley near Prescott, YAV, 10 Mar 2002, not accepted on a second round, and one from P.A.P. pecan grove, PIM, 24 Apr 2004, both lacked sufficient detail to eliminate confusing species.

Short-tailed Hawk Buteo brachyurus.  An old report of one from near Paradise, COS, 7 Mar 1990 was reviewed again given the recent acceptance of this species onto the state list, but was ultimately not accepted on a second round due to the lack of enough convincing details. Other more recent reports not accepted include five at one time in the Santa Rita Mountains, SCR, 25 Aug 2002, and one in Carr Canyon, COS, 26 Jun 2004.

LAUGHING GULL  Larus atricilla. A description of one reported at Willow Lake, YAV, 11 June 1999 lacked sufficient detail to eliminate confusing species.

ARCTIC TERN Sterna paradisaea.  One written description of an immature reported from Ashurst Lake near Flagstaff, COC, 26 Sept 2004 was ultimately not accepted after two rounds. The observer himself was hesitant in accepting (reporting) this single-observer sight record without physical documentation. Given the inherent difficulty in separating this species from the more regular Common Tern (Sterna hirundo), the ABC is also cautious accepting a sight report of this species without photos.

Elegant Tern Thalasseus elegans. The description of one reported at Reid Park Tucson, PIM, 11 Jun 2000 was not detailed enough to confirm the identification.

BLACK SKIMMER Rynchops niger.  A report of one from Green Valley, PIM, 19 Apr 2004 lacked sufficient details for acceptance.

Black Swift Cypseloides niger. A report of three from Montezuma Pass, Huachuca Mts., COS, 26 May 2003 went to a second round, but was eventually not accepted as members were concerned with the lack of direct comparison with other swift species. There still remains no physically documented record of Black Swift from Arizona.

Lucifer Hummingbird Calothorax lucifer. One reported from high elevation in Pinery Canyon, Chiricahua Mts., COS, 25 Jun 2004 was felt by the ABC to be in inappropriate habitat, and the presence of "red" feathers on throat suggested Broad-tailed Hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus), which occurs regularly at this location.

RED-BREASTED SAPSUCKER Sphyrapicus ruber.  An individual photographed at Patagonia Lake, SCR, 5 Dec 2004 was considered to be an intergrade between Red-breasted and Red-naped Sapsuckers.

YELLOW-BELLIED SAPSUCKER Sphyrapicus varius.  Details of one reported along the San Pedro River near Hereford, COS, 2 Apr 1998 did not completely rule out the more expected Red-naped Sapsucker.

American Three-toed Woodpecker Picoides dorsalis. Two reports, one from Manning Camp, Saguaro National Park, PIM, 8 May 1996, and one from Rose Canyon, Santa Catalina Mts., PIM, 7 Aug 2000, were both thought likely to have been juv. Hairy Woodpeckers (Picoides villosus) showing some yellow on the head. There are no confirmed records from s. Arizona for American Three-toed Woodpecker.

ALDER FLYCATCHER Empidonax alnorum. An intriguing report of one at Cameron, COC, 26 Aug 2002 was not accepted because no physical documentation (sound recording or photograph) was acquired for this sighting. Because of this species' extreme similarity in plumage to "eastern" Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax trailii), and a well-established variation in Willow call notes, the ABC is conservative in accepting a single observer sight report of Alder as a first Arizona record.

LEAST FLYCATCHER Empidonax minimus. Owing to the difficulty in separating this species from Dusky Flycatcher (Empidonax oberholseri), and the great plumage variation, in general, of all Empidonax species, the ABC remains very conservative with regard to accepting Least Flycatcher sight records. Reports of this species which many committee members commented "may have been correct", but lacked sufficient critical details (such as description of diagnostic calls) that eliminated similar species, included one at Many Farms, APA, 4 Sep 1999, one in the Tucson Mts., PIM, 14 May 2002, and one from Tuba City, COC, 2 Sep 2003.

NUTTING'S FLYCATCHER Myiarchus nuttingi. Although never officially submitted to the ABC for review, the committee evaluated a published report of this  Mexican species' occurrence in Arizona, that was based on a netted and photographed individual at the Audubon Research Ranch southeast of Elgin, SCR, 15 Jul 1985 (see American Birds 41 (1):5-10). It was the unanimous opinion of the ABC that the individual photographed was, in fact, an Ash-throated Flycatcher (Myiarchus cinerascens) in very worn plumage. Aspects of the  rectrix pattern (as shown in the photographs) confirm this identification.  Erroneous conclusions based on characters presented in the article as "diagnostic" for Nutting's, such as "orange" mouth lining, and, less importantly, various plumage characteristics, were likely misinterpretations of discolored photos, and misinterpretations of important distinguishing characters as presented by Lanyon in The Condor (1961). Another Nutting's report from Patagonia L., SCR, 29 Dec 2002 was perhaps correct, but confusing aspects of the description, the lack of photographs or documenting sound recordings, and the subsequent presence there of both Ash-throated Flycatcher (M. cinerascens) and Dusky-capped Flycatcher (M. tuberculifer), led the ABC to be cautious about accepting this report. Extreme caution should be used in the identification of Nutting's Flycatcher wherever Ash-throated Flycatcher is possible.  Recordings of an individual's vocalizations will play an essential role in the evaluation of any future report (see San Miguel and McGrath 2005 for interesting discussion of a recent California report of Nutting's Flycatcher).

YELLOW-BILLED MAGPIE  Pica nuttalli.  An incredible report of this California endemic from Prescott, YAV, 3 Apr 2004 was generally thought to have been correctly identified, but virtually all of the committee members had trouble believing that the bird was a natural vagrant, and had not been in captivity.

SINALOA MARTIN Progne sinaloae. A very intriguing written report of this Mexican species from Barfoot Jct., Chiricahua Mts., COS 5 Sep 1998 was not adequately documented to warrant acceptance as a first U.S. record. Little is known about the timing, migration route, and winter distribution of this species (Howell and Webb 1995), yet distribution maps, and observations (A. Craig; pers. com.) indicate that it has been recorded within 100 miles of the U.S. border in Sonora, and its occurrence (in the future) in s.e. Arizona would not be altogether unexpected.

SEDGE WREN Cistothorus platensis. Despite garnering six positive votes on the second round, a report along with drawing of this species from Whitewater Draw Wildlife Area, COS, 26 Aug 2001 ultimately was not accepted as a first state record, one member citing concern over the observer's possible lack of familiarity with "western" Marsh Wren.

BLACK-CAPPED GNATCATCHER Polioptila nigriceps. A male gnatcatcher that was photographed in Chino Canyon, SCR, 7 Apr - 21 Jul 1996 and originally accepted as a male Black-capped (see Rosenberg  and Witzeman 1999), was present again in 1997, when close-up photographs revealed it to be a hybrid Black-capped x Black-tailed Gnatcatcher; bill length, amount of white in the tail, as well as vocalizations all appeared intermediate between the two species.

NORTHERN WHEATEAR Oenanthe oenanthe. The ABC was divided 4-4 after two rounds for a reported Northern Wheatear from Green Valley, PIM, 19 Oct 2002. Although some members noted that several characteristics favored the identification of a Northern Wheatear (dark mask, buff on breast etc…), others noted that the description was too incomplete to accept as a second Arizona record without photographic evidence.

VEERY Catharus fuscescens. At the request of a committee member, an old accepted report of Veery (Rosenberg and Witzeman 1999) from Patagonia, SCR, 25 May 1976 was re-evaluated by the ABC. The documentation was found lacking sufficient detail for acceptance. There remains only one accepted record away from the White Mts. (where this species historically summered), a bird photographed at the B.T.A. 4 Jul - 25 Aug 1992 (Rosenberg and Witzeman 1999).

AZTEC THRUSH Ridgwayia pinicola. The description of one juvenile reported from Geology Vista, Santa Catalina Mts., PIM, 25 Aug 2000 lacked sufficient detail to accept. Several committee members mentioned that a juvenile Aztec Thrush is more "scalloped" not "streaked", as in the description. Although the first documented U.S. record of Aztec Thrush (from Texas) was of a juvenile (Wolf 1978), none of the Arizona records pertain to that plumage.

BROWN-BACKED SOLITAIRE Myadestes occidentalis. An unequivocal Brown-backed Solitaire was photographed in lower Madera Canyon, PIM, 4 Oct 1996 (NC; ph. GHR, ph. CDB). The ABC was nearly unanimous in suggesting that this species not be accepted onto the official state list (and U.S. list) because of the uncertainty of this individual's origin. Because of its amazing song, Brown-backed Solitaire is one of the most common cage birds seen in Mexican towns. If a more established pattern of vagrancy is ever detected in Arizona, this report will be re-evaluated.

SPRAGUE'S PIPIT Anthus spragueii. An out-of-season individual reported on a dirt road near Elgin in the Sonoita Grasslands, SCR, 1 June 2003 was thought by several members to have likely been a juvenile Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris), consideration of which was not mentioned in the description.

"BREWSTER'S" WARBLER  Vermivora pinus x chysoptera.  A very intriguing report of this hybrid combination, which would have represented a first report from Arizona, from Portal, COS, 21 May 1998, unfortunately lacked enough detail for the committee to accept.

BLACKBURNIAN WARBLER Dendroica fusca. An old report consisting of only partial details of one reported at South Fork near Springerville, APA, 5 Oct 1978 was considered by most on the committee to be likely correct, but not detailed enough for acceptance.

SWAINSON'S WARBLER  Limnothlypis swainsonii.  A report of one from Tolleson, MAR, 25 Aug 2002 was considered "likely correct" by several committee members, but all felt the description was missing critical elements to substantiate this sighting as a second Arizona record.

SCARLET TANAGER Piranga olivacea. One reported from Round Valley, n. of Portal, COS, 24 Oct 2002 was not accepted. Although the observer was very experienced, the details submitted were too brief to substantiate the sighting.

FLAME-COLORED TANAGER Piranga bidentata. A second-year male was reported from Miller Canyon, COS, 10 Jun 2002, but the description did not rule out the possibility of a hybrid with Western Tanager (Piranga ludoviciana). This sighting was during the time period that an adult male, as well as several apparent hybrids were present in the canyon.

FIVE-STRIPED SPARROW  Aimophila quinquestriata. A winter extralimital report from Catalina State Park n. of Tucson, PIM, 16 Dec 1999 was considered not detailed enough for acceptance of what would represent the farthest north report of this species in North America.

"TIMBERLINE" BREWER'S SPARROW Spizella breweri taverneri. An individual thought to be this form was well-described from Hereford, COS, 22 Jan 2000. The  committee was nearly unanimous in its decision to not accept this report without physical documentation, and to revisit this submission at a later date if definitive field characters are developed to distinguish this form (and possible species) from "regular" Brewer's Sparrow. Monson and Phillips (1981) mention two old specimens from Arizona that may be assigned to taverneri.

YELLOW GROSBEAK Pheucticus chrysopeplus. One report of an individual seen only briefly (4 seconds) in Sabino Canyon, PIM, 9 May 2001 was not detailed enough for acceptance.

TRICOLORED BLACKBIRD Agelaius tricolor. A bird photographed in Tucson, PIM,  20 Jul 2002 showing what appeared to be "white" tips to the epaulet was determined to likely be a "bleached" Red-winged Blackbird, a condition that was pointed out by one member as "common" at this season. The photograph was, unfortunately, of poor quality, and committee members disagreed as to the true shape of the bill. There remain no Arizona records of this California specialty.

"BLACK-BACKED" BULLOCK'S ORIOLE Icterus bullocki abeillei. A written report of an adult male thought by the observer to be of this form from Nogales, SCR, 13-19 Jun 2002 was not detailed enough to rule out a potential hybrid, aberrant individual, or escaped cage bird.

BALTIMORE ORIOLE  Icterus galbula.  Photos of a female coming to a feeder in Portal, COS, 16 May 1997 did not definitively rule out a possible hybrid Baltimore x Bullock's Oriole.


Walt Anderson, George Armistead, John Arvin, Scott Atkinson, Charles Babbitt (CBa), John Bache-Wiig (JBw), Mary Jo Ballator, Nathan Banfield (NBa), Steve Barlow (SBa), Jack Bartley (JBa), Robin Baxter (RBa), Tom Beatty, Chris D. Benesh, Harry Bergtholdt (HBe), Gavin Bieber, Susan Birky, Jerry Bock (JBo), Rick Bowers (RBo), Ned Boyajian (NBo), Ed Boyd, Hank Brodkin, Jim Burns (JBu), R. G. Burton (RBu), Dave Cagle (DCa), Eleanor Campbell, David Carlstrom (DCs), Cliff Cathers (CCa), Robert Chapman, Glen Coady (GCo), Jeff Coker (JCk), John Coons, Doug Cooper (DCo), Charles Corchran, Troy Corman, , Gary Crandall, Marion Cressman, Marcy Dalmer, Robert Darby, Stephen Davies, Tyler Davis, Henry Detwiler, Pierre Deviche, Rich Ditch (RDi), Cynthia Donald, Jon L. Dunn, Tina Eggert, Joel Ellis (JEl), Jeff Estis (JEs), Shawneen Finnegan, Bob Fogg, Richard Fray (RFa), Reid Freeman, Kurt Fultz, Frank Gallo, Steve Ganley (SGa), Murray Gardler, Kurt Gaskill, Joseph Gebler (JGe), Brian Gibbons (BGi), Tony Godfrey, Elaine Goldman, Shawn Goodchild (SGo), John Grahame (JGr), Dan Green, Phil Gregory, Chet Gresham, Robert Grimmond, Bill Grossi (BGr), Jennifer Hanley (JHy), Linda Harris, Ned Harris, Michael Harvey (MHa), Karen Havlena, Jim Havlena (JHv), James Haw (JHw), James Hays (JHa), Stuart Healy (SHe), Steve Heinl (SHn), Robert Henry (RHe), George Hentz, John Hildebrand (JHi), Jack Holloway (JHo), Rich Hoyer (RHo), J. Hudson (JHu), Matt Hysell (MHy), Marshall J. Illiff, Dave Jasper (DJa), Doug Jenness (DJe), Sally Johnsen, Bud Johnson, Roy Jones, Keith Kamper (KKa), Patrick Kearney (PKe), Melody Kehl, Jo Ann Kelly, Phil Kelly, Scott Kennedy, Ken Kertell (KKe), Kendall Kroeson (KKr), Dave Krueper, Brynne Langan, Mike Lanzone, Chuck LaRue, Paul Lehman, Wade Leitner, Dean  and Joan Leuhrs, John Levy, Larry Liese, Craig Marken (CMa), Janine McCabe (JMc), Paul McConnell (PMc),  Chet McGaugh (CMg), Carol McIntyre (CMi), Charles Melton (CMe), M. Mencotti (MMe), Bill Metheny (BMe), Scott Mills (SMi), Steve Mlodinow (SMo), Janet Moore (JMo), T. Moore (TMo), Narca Moore-Craig, Arnold Moorhouse, Terry Morgan (TMg), Joseph Morlan (JMn), Elaine Morral, David Morrison, Bob Morse (BMo), Pete Moulton (PMo), Ted Mouras (TMu), John Munier Jr. (JMu), Dave Nelson, Kristi Nelson, Patti Newell, Brian Nicholas, Jeryl Ogden, Jim Parker (JPa),  Walter Paton, Bob Pearson, Dave Pearson, Mark Peterson (MPe), Anne Peyton, M. Plotkin (MPl), Molly Pollock (MPo), Bonnie Pranter, John Prather, Mark Pretti (MPr), Dave Quady, Kurt Radamaker, Roger Radd (RRa), Brian Rapoza (BRa), Betty Rathjen, Mike Rogers, Rick Romea (RRo), Gary H. Rosenberg, Donna Roten, C. Rudd, Will Russell, Janet Ruth, Robert Scholes (RSc), Bill Sparks (BSp), Connie Sparks, John Saba (JSa), Peter Salomon, Bob Schutsky (BSh), Bill Scott (BSc), Robert Shantz (RSh), David A. Sibley, D. Small, James Smith (JSm), Troy Smith, Michael Solot, Bob Spalin (BSa), Cindy Sprecher (CSr), Dave Stejskal, Mark M. Stevenson, Joshua Stewart (JSt), Doug Stotz (DSt), Brian Sullivan (BSu), Paul Sweet (PSw), David Taylor, J. Taylor, Rick Taylor, Scott Terrill (STe), Bob Thomen, Carl Tomoff, Walter Tordoff, Mark Turner, Sandy Turner (STu), Andrew Vallely, Christie Van Cleve, Marceline Van DeWater, David Vander Pluym, Jimmy Videle, J. Wallick (JWa), Wezil Walraven , Peggy Wang, Richard Webster (RWb), Ralph Welter (RWe), David West, George West, Jack Whetstone (JWh), David Whiteley, John Williams (JWi), Sheri Williamson, Erika Wilson, Barb & Lou Winterfield, Cathy Wise, Robin Wolcott (RWo), Tom Wood, Joe Woodley (JWo), Brian Wooldridge (BWo), James Zabriskie, Barry Zimmer, James Zimmer (JZi), Kevin Zimmer, Mark Zloba.


Alderfer, J., Editor. 2005. National Geographic Complete Birds of North America. National Geographic. Washington, D.C.

American Ornithologists' Union.  1998.  Check-list of North American Birds, 7th ed.  Am. Ornithol. Union, Lawrence, KS.

Arterburn, J. W., and Grzybowski, J. A.  2003.  Hybridization between Glossy and White-faced Ibises. N. Am. Birds 57:136-139.

Banks, R., Cicero, C., Dunn, J. L., Kratter, A. W., Rasmussen, P. C., Remsen, J. V., Jr., Rising, J. D., and Stotz, D. F. 2004. Forty-fifth supplement to the American Ornitholgists' Union Checklist of North American Birds. Auk 121:985-995.

Banks, R., Cicero, C., Dunn, J. L., Kratter, A. W., Rasmussen, P. C., Remsen, J. V., Jr., Rising, J. D., and Stotz, D. F. 2005. Forty-sixth supplement to the American Ornitholgists' Union Checklist of North American Birds. Auk 122:1026-1031.

Bowers, R., and Dunning, J. B.  1987.  Nutting's Flycatcher in Arizona.  Am. Birds 41:5-10.

Boyce, W., and Elliot, L. 1983. First record of Snow Bunting in Arizona. W. Birds 14:54.

Cole, L. W., Nelson, K. N., and Sterling, J. C.  2006.  The 30th Report of the California Bird Records Committee: 2004 Records. W. Birds 37:65-105.

Corman, T. E. and Wise-Gervais, C.  2005. Arizona Breeding Bird Atlas. University of New Mexico Press, Albuqueque.

Faulkner, D. 2005. Hybridization and nesting of Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus) in Wyoming. N. Am. Birds 59: 382.

Johnson, N. K., and Johnson, C.B. 1985. Speciation in Sapsuckers (Sphyrapicus): II. Sympatry, Hybridization, and Mate Preference in S. ruber daggetti, and S. nuchalis. Auk 102: 1-15.

Lanyon, W. E. 1961. Specific limits and distribution of Ash-throated and Nutting's Flycatchers. Condor 63:421-449.

Monson, G., and Phillips, A. R.  1981.  Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Arizona, second edition.  University of Arizona Press.  Tucson, Arizona.

Patten, M. A., and Lasley, G. W. 2000. Range expansion of the Glossy Ibis in North America. N. Am. Birds 54:241-247.

Patten, M. A., McCaskie, G., and Unitt, P. 2003 .Birds of the Salton Sea. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.

Pyle, P.  1997. Identification Guide to North American Birds, part 1: Columbidae to Ploceidae. Slate Creek Press, Bolinas, CA.

Rosenberg, G. H., and Witzeman, J. L.  1998.  Arizona Bird Committee Report, 1974-1996: Part 1 (Non-passerines).  W. Birds 29 (199-224).

Rosenberg, G. H., and Witzeman, J. L.  1999.  Arizona Bird Committee Report, 1974-1996: Part 2 (Passerines).  W. Birds 30 (94-120).

Rosenberg, G. H.  2001.  Arizona Bird Committee Report: 1996-1999 Records.  W. Birds 32 (50-70).

Rosenberg, K. V., Ohmart, R. D., and Hunter, W. C.  1991.  Birds of the Lower Colorado River Valley.  University of Arizona Press.  Tucson, Arizona.

San Miguel, M., and McGrath, T. 2005.  Report of the California Bird Records Committee: 2003 Records. W. Birds 36:78-113.

Sibley, D. A., and Howell, S. N. G. 1998. Identification of White and Black-backed Wagtails in basic plumage. W. Birds 29:180-198.

Speich, S., and Parker, T. A.  1973.  Arizona Bird Records, 1972.  W. Birds 4:53-57.

Speich, S. M., and Witzeman, J. L.  1975.  Arizona Bird Records, 1973, with Additional Notes.  W. Birds 6:145-155.

Wolf, D. 1978. First record of Aztec Thrush in the United States. Am Birds 32:156-157.